- How are interest rates determined?
- What is an adjustable rate mortgage?
- Should I pay discount points in exchange for a lower interest rate?
- Is comparing APRs the best way to decide which lender has the lowest rates and fees?
- How do I know if it's best to lock in my interest rate or to let it float?
- How much money will I save by choosing a 15-year loan rather than a 30-year loan?
- Are there any prepayment penalties charged for these loan programs?
- Tell me more about closing fees and how they are determined.
- What is title insurance and why do I need it?
- What is mortgage insurance and when is it required?
- What is your home equity loan rate lock policy?
- What is the maximum percentage of my home's value that I can borrow?
- Tell me more about home equity loan closing fees and how they are determined.
- What is a Home Equity Line of Credit?
- What’s the difference between a home equity loan and a refinance?
How are interest rates determined?
Interest rates fluctuate based on a variety of factors, including inflation, the pace of economic growth, and Federal Reserve policy. Over time, inflation has the largest influence on the level of interest rates. A modest rate of inflation will almost always lead to low interest rates, while concerns about rising inflation normally cause interest rates to increase. Our nation's central bank, the Federal Reserve, implements policies designed to keep inflation and interest rates relatively low and stable.
What is an adjustable rate mortgage?
An adjustable rate mortgage, or an "ARM" as they are commonly called, is a loan type that offers a lower initial interest rate than most fixed rate loans. The trade off is that the interest rate can change periodically, usually in relation to an index, and the monthly payment will go up or down accordingly.
Against the advantage of the lower payment at the beginning of the loan, you should weigh the risk that an increase in interest rates would lead to higher monthly payments in the future. It's a trade-off. You get a lower rate with an ARM in exchange for assuming more risk.
For many people in a variety of situations, an ARM is the right mortgage choice, particularly if your income is likely to increase in the future or if you only plan on being in the home for three to five years.
Here's some detailed information explaining how ARM's work.
With most ARMs, the interest rate and monthly payment are fixed for an initial time period such as five years, seven years, or ten years. After the initial fixed period, the interest rate can change. For example, one of our most popular adjustable rate mortgages is a five-year ARM. The interest rate will not change for the first five years (the initial adjustment period) but can change once every five years thereafter.
Our ARM interest rate changes are tied to changes in an index rate. Using an index to determine future rate adjustments provides you with assurance that rate adjustments will be based on actual market conditions at the time of the adjustment. The current value of most indices is published weekly in the Wall Street Journal. If the index rate moves up so does your mortgage interest rate, and you will probably have to make a higher monthly payment. On the other hand, if the index rate goes down your monthly payment may decrease.
To determine the interest rate on an ARM, we'll add a pre-disclosed amount to the index called the "margin." If you're still shopping, comparing one lender's margin to another's can be more important than comparing the initial interest rate, since it will be used to calculate the interest rate you will pay in the future.
An interest-rate cap places a limit on the amount your interest rate can increase or decrease. There are two types of caps:
1. Periodic or adjustment caps, which limit the interest rate increase or decrease from one adjustment period to the next.
2. Overall or lifetime caps, which limit the interest rate increase over the life of the loan.
As you can imagine, interest rate caps are very important since no one knows what can happen in the future. All of the ARMs we offer have both adjustment and lifetime caps. Please see each product description for full details.
"Negative Amortization" occurs when your monthly payment changes to an amount less than the amount required to pay interest due. If a loan has negative amortization, you might end up owing more than you originally borrowed. None of the ARMs we offer allow for negative amortization.
Some lenders may require you to pay special fees or penalties if you pay off the ARM early. We never charge a penalty for prepayment.
Contact a Mortgage Consultant
Selecting a mortgage may be the most important financial decision you will make and you are entitled to all the information you need to make the right decision. Don't hesitate to contact a Mortgage Consultant if you have questions about the features of our adjustable rate mortgages.
Should I pay discount points in exchange for a lower interest rate?
Discount points are considered a form of interest. Each point is equal to one percent of the loan amount. You pay them, up front, at your loan closing in exchange for a lower interest rate over the life of your loan. This means more money will be required at closing, however, you will have lower monthly payments over the term of your loan.
To determine whether it makes sense for you to pay discount points, you should compare the cost of the discount points to the monthly payments savings created by the lower interest rate. Divide the total cost of the discount points by the savings in each monthly payment. This calculation provides the number of payments you'll make before you actually begin to save money by paying discount points. If the number of months it will take to recoup the discount points is longer than you plan on having this mortgage, you should consider the loan program option that doesn't require discount points to be paid.
If you'd prefer not to make this calculation the "old-fashioned way," we have a discount points calculator!
Is comparing APRs the best way to decide which lender has the lowest rates and fees?
The Federal Truth in Lending law requires that all financial institutions disclose the APR when they advertise a rate. The APR is designed to present the actual cost of obtaining financing, by requiring that some, but not all, closing fees are included in the APR calculation. These fees in addition to the interest rate determine the estimated cost of financing over the full term of the loan. Since most people do not keep the mortgage for the entire loan term, it may be misleading to spread the effect of some of these up front costs over the entire loan term.
Also, unfortunately, the APR doesn't include all the closing fees and lenders are allowed to interpret which fees they include. Fees for things like appraisals, title work, and document preparation are not included even though you'll probably have to pay them.
For adjustable rate mortgages, the APR can be even more confusing. Since no one knows exactly what market conditions will be in the future, assumptions must be made regarding future rate adjustments.
You can use the APR as a guideline to shop for loans but you should not depend solely on the APR in choosing the loan program that's best for you. Look at total fees, possible rate adjustments in the future if you're comparing adjustable rate mortgages, and consider the length of time that you plan on having the mortgage.
Don't forget that the APR is an effective interest rate--not the actual interest rate. Your monthly payments will be based on the actual interest rate, the amount you borrow, and the term of your loan.
How do I know if it's best to lock in my interest rate or to let it float?
Mortgage interest rate movements are as hard to predict as the stock market and no one can really know for certain whether they'll go up or down.
If you have a hunch that rates are on an upward trend then you'll want to consider locking the rate as soon as you are able. Before you decide to lock, make sure that your loan can close within the lock in period. It won't do any good to lock your rate if you can't close during the rate lock period. If you're purchasing a home, review your contract for the estimated closing date to help you choose the right rate lock period. If you are refinancing, in most cases, your loan could close within 30 days. However, if you have any secondary financing on the home that won't be paid off, allow some extra time since we'll need to contact that lender to get their permission.
If you think rates might drop while your loan is being processed, take a risk and let your rate "float" instead of locking.
How much money will I save by choosing a 15-year loan rather than a 30-year loan?
A 15-year fixed rate mortgage gives you the ability to own your home free and clear in 15 years. And, while the monthly payments are somewhat higher than a 30-year loan, the interest rate on the 15-year mortgage is usually a little lower, and more important - you'll pay less than half the total interest cost of the traditional 30-year mortgage.
However, if you can't afford the higher monthly payment of a 15-year mortgage don't feel alone. Many borrowers find the higher payment out of reach and choose a 30-year mortgage. It still makes sense to use a 30-year mortgage for most people.
Who Should Consider a 15-Year Mortgage?
The 15-year fixed rate mortgage is one of Provident most well-liked real estate products with credit union members, who desire to own their home faster and have sufficient income to meet higher monthly payments. Members, who are established in their careers, and have higher incomes and whose desire is to own their homes before they retire prefer this mortgage.
Advantages and Disadvantages of a 15-Year Mortgage
The 15-year fixed rate mortgage offers two big advantages for most borrowers:
- You own your home in half the time it would take with a traditional 30-year mortgage.
- You save more than half the amount of interest of a 30-year mortgage. Lenders usually offer this mortgage at a slightly lower interest rate than with 30-year loans - typically up to .5% lower. It is this lower interest rate added to the shorter loan life that creates real savings for 15-year fixed rate borrowers.
The possible disadvantages associated with a 15-year fixed rate mortgage are:
- The monthly payments for this type of loan are roughly 10 percent to 15 percent higher per month than the payment for a 30-year.
- Because you'll pay less total interest on the 15-year fixed rate mortgage, you won't have the maximum mortgage interest tax deduction possible.
Compare Them Yourself
Use the "How much can I save with a 15 year mortgage?" calculator in our Resource Center to help decide which loan term is best for you.
Are there any prepayment penalties charged for these loan programs?
None of the loan programs we offer have penalties for prepayment. You can pay off your mortgage any time with no additional charges.
What is your rate lock policy?
Rate-locks are available on Provident Credit Union’s fully amortizing fixed-rate, adjustable and fixed/adjustable loans. The interest rate market is subject to movements without advance notice. Locking in a rate protects you from the time that your lock is confirmed to the day that your lock period expires.
A lock is an agreement by the member and Provident Credit Union for a number of days for which a loan’s interest rate and discount points are committed to by both parties. Should interest rates rise during that period, we are obligated to honor the committed rate and discount points. Should interest rates fall during that period, the member should honor the lock.
- Fixed-Rate Loan Programs that are Lock-In at Application. You have elected to lock-in the interest rate and discount points for your fixed-rate program, at application; this means that, on the date your loan is officially approved, Provident Credit Union will draw the note at the interest rate and discount points locked-in at application.
- Fixed-Rate Programs that Float with the Market. You have elected not to have the actual interest rate, and discount points established or confirmed at application and you will float with the market until final loan approval. Provident Credit Union will draw the note at the interest rate and discount points locked-in at official approval.
- Adjustable and Fixed/Adjustable Program Lock-In: You have elected to lock-in the interest rate and discount points for your adjustable, or fixed/adjustable loan at application, this means that, on the date your loan is formally approved, Provident Credit Union will draw the note at the locked-in interest rate and discount points at application, or our then current pricing, whichever is lower.
When Can I Lock?
In most cases, your application will provide all the information needed and you will will be eligible to lock-in your interest rate, and discount points immediately after loan approval and upon receiving and processing your application deposit. Also, you will have the option at that time to float your lock-in with the market until final approval. Otherwise, you will be invited back to lock after we have reviewed your documentation and credit package. We will notify you when you are able to request the lock. Loan applications without properties, or pre-approvals, or pre-qualifications are not eligible for a rate-lock.
We do not charge a fee for locking in your interest rate.
We currently offer 30 - calendar day lock-in periods for fixed-rate, and 30, 45 and 60 - calendar day lock-in periods for adjustable, and fixed/adjustable loans. This means your loan must close and disburse within this number of days from the day your lock is confirmed by us.
Once we accept your lock, your loan is committed into a secondary market transaction. Therefore, we are not able to renegotiate lock commitment.
We will make a diligent effort to process and close your loan on a timely basis. However, receipt of certain documents or performance by third party service providers in completing the loan application process may be beyond our control. Therefore, you must agree to cooperate in any reasonable manner to achieve this goal. We cannot guarantee that your loan will close within the lock-in period. If your rate-lock period expires, you will be subject to the published rate on the date the loan is formally approved. Any change in loan type, loan program, interest rate, loan amount and/or term may result in additional costs or charges.
Tell me more about closing fees and how they are determined.
A home loan often involves many fees, such as the appraisal fee, title charges, and closing fees. These fees vary from state to state and also from lender to lender. Any lender or broker should be able to give you an estimate of their fees, but it is more difficult to tell which lenders have done their homework and are providing a complete and accurate estimate. We take quotes very seriously. We've completed the research necessary to make sure that our fee quotes are accurate to the city level - and that is no easy task!
To assist you in evaluating our fees, we've grouped them as follows:
Third Party Fees
Fees that we consider third party fees include the appraisal fee, the credit report fee, the settlement or closing fee, the survey fee, tax service fees, title insurance fees, flood certification fees, and courier/mailing fees.
Third party fees are fees that we'll collect and pass on to the person who actually performed the service. For example, an appraiser is paid the appraisal fee, a credit bureau is paid the credit report fee, and a title company or an attorney is paid the title insurance fees.
Typically, you'll see some minor variances in third party fees from lender to lender since a lender may have negotiated a special charge from a provider they use often or chooses a provider that offers nationwide coverage at a flat rate. You may also see that some lenders absorb minor third party fees such as the flood certification fee, the tax service fee, or courier/mailing fees.
Taxes and other unavoidables
Fees that we consider to be taxes and other unavoidables include: State/Local Taxes and recording fees. These fees will most likely have to be paid regardless of the lender you choose. If some lenders don't quote you fees that include taxes and other unavoidable fees, don't assume that you won't have to pay it. It probably means that the lender who doesn't tell you about the fee hasn't done the research necessary to provide accurate closing costs.
Fees such as discount points, document preparation fees, and loan processing fees are retained by the lender and are used to provide you with the lowest rates possible.
This is the category of fees that you should compare very closely from lender to lender before making a decision.
You may be asked to prepay some items at closing that will actually be due in the future. These fees are sometimes referred to as prepaid items.
One of the more common required advances is called "per diem interest" or "interest due at closing." All of our mortgages have payment due dates of the 1st of the month. If your loan is closed on any day other than the first of the month, you'll pay interest, from the date of closing through the end of the month, at closing. For example, if the loan is closed on June 15, we'll collect interest from June 15 through June 30 at closing. This also means that you won't make your first mortgage payment until August 1. This type of charge should not vary from lender to lender, and does not need to be considered when comparing lenders. All lenders will charge you interest beginning on the day the loan funds are disbursed. It is simply a matter of when it will be collected.
If an escrow or impound account will be established, you will make an initial deposit into the escrow account at closing so that sufficient funds are available to pay the bills when they become due.
If your loan requires mortgage insurance, up to two months of the mortgage insurance will be collected at closing. Whether or not you must purchase mortgage insurance depends on the size of the down payment you make.
If your loan is a purchase, you'll also need to pay for your first year's homeowner's insurance premium prior to closing. We consider this to be a required advance.
What is title insurance and why do I need it?
If you've ever purchased a home before, you may already be familiar with the benefits and terms of title insurance. But if this is your first home loan or you are refinancing, you may be wondering why you need another insurance policy.
The answer is simple: The purchase of a home is most likely one of the most expensive and important purchases you will ever make. You, and especially your mortgage lender, want to make sure the property is indeed yours: That no individual or government entity has any right, lien, claim, or encumbrance on your property.
The function of a title insurance company is to make sure your rights and interests to the property are clear, that transfer of title takes place efficiently and correctly, and that your interests as a homebuyer are fully protected.
Title insurance companies provide services to buyers, sellers, real estate developers, builders, mortgage lenders, and others who have an interest in real estate transfer. Title companies typically issue two types of title policies:
1) Owner's Policy. This policy covers you, the homebuyer.
2) Lender's Policy. This policy covers the lending institution over the life of the loan.
Both types of policies are issued at the time of closing for a one-time premium, if the loan is a purchase. If you are refinancing your home, you probably already have an owner's policy that was issued when you purchased the property, so we'll only require that a lender's policy be issued.
Before issuing a policy, the title company performs an in-depth search of the public records to determine if anyone other than you has an interest in the property. The search may be performed by title company personnel using either public records or, more likely, the information contained in the company's own title plant.
After a thorough examination of the records, any title problems are usually found and can be cleared up prior to your purchase of the property. Once a title policy is issued, if any claim covered under your policy is ever filed against your property, the title company will pay the legal fees involved in the defense of your rights. They are also responsible to cover losses arising from a valid claim. This protection remains in effect as long as you or your heirs own the property.
The fact that title companies try to eliminate risks before they develop makes title insurance significantly different from other types of insurance. Most forms of insurance assume risks by providing financial protection through a pooling of risks for losses arising from an unforeseen future event, say a fire, accident or theft. On the other hand, the purpose of title insurance is to eliminate risks and prevent losses caused by defects in title that may have happened in the past.
This risk elimination has benefits to both the homebuyer and the title company. It minimizes the chances that adverse claims might be raised, thereby reducing the number of claims that have to be defended or satisfied. This keeps costs down for the title company and the premiums low for the homebuyer.
Buying a home is a big step emotionally and financially. With title insurance you are assured that any valid claim against your property will be borne by the title company, and that the odds of a claim being filed are slim indeed.
What is mortgage insurance and when is it required?
First of all, let's make sure that we mean the same thing when we discuss "mortgage insurance." Mortgage insurance should not be confused with mortgage life insurance, which is designed to pay off a mortgage in the event of a borrower's death. Mortgage insurance makes it possible for you to buy a home with less than a 20% down payment by protecting the lender against the additional risk associated with low down payment lending. Low down payment mortgages are becoming more and more popular, and by purchasing mortgage insurance, lenders are comfortable with down payments as low as 3 - 5% of the home's value. It also provides you with the ability to buy a more expensive home than might be possible if a 20% down payment were required.
The mortgage insurance premium is based on loan to value ratio, type of loan, and amount of coverage required by the lender. Usually, the premium is included in your monthly payment and one to two months of the premium is collected as a required advance at closing.
It may be possible to cancel private mortgage insurance at some point, such as when your loan balance is reduced to a certain amount - below 75% to 80% of the property value. Recent Federal Legislation requires automatic termination of mortgage insurance for many borrowers when their loan balance has been amortized down to 78% of the original property value. If you have any questions about when your mortgage insurance could be cancelled, please contact your Mortgage Consultant.
What is the maximum percentage of my home's value that I can borrow?
The maximum percentage you may borrow varies from lender to lender. Speak to one of our mortgage consultants to find out the maximum we will allow you to borrow. You may also refer to our Equity Rates page.
Tell me more about home equity loan closing fees and how they are determined.
A home equity loan often can involve fees, such as the appraisal fee, title charges, and fees. These fees vary from state to state and also from lender to lender. Any lender should be able to give you an estimate of their fees. It is more difficult to tell which lenders have done their homework and are providing a complete and accurate estimate. We take fee quotes very seriously. We've completed the research necessary to make sure that our fee quotes are accurate.
If you have any other questions about fees, please contact one of our Loan Advisors – they would be happy to help!
What is a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)?
A home equity line is a form of revolving credit in which your home serves as collateral. Because your home is likely to be your largest asset, you should consider a home equity line of credit for the purchase of major items such as education, home improvements, or medical bills and not for day-to-day expenses.
With a home equity line, you will be approved for a specific amount of credit—your credit limit—meaning the maximum amount you can borrow at any one time while you have the plan. Since you can get approved for an amount of credit now and not access the funds until you need them, a home equity line of credit is a good choice if you simply want to ability to access cash as you need it.
With our home equity loan, you’ll have the ability to access funds, up to the amount of your credit limit, by simply writing a check or using your Equity Platinum Visa Card. A supply of checks will be sent to you after closing.
The monthly payment for a home equity loan is typically based on your daily balance and the daily interest rate.
If you are thinking about a home equity line of credit you also might want to consider a more traditional second mortgage loan. This type of loan provides you with a fixed amount of money repayable over a fixed period. Usually the payment schedule calls for equal payments that will pay off the entire loan within that time. You might consider a traditional second mortgage loan instead of a home equity line if, for example, you need a set amount for a specific purpose, such as an addition to your home.
What’s the difference between a home equity loan and a refinance?
A home equity loan is generally a second mortgage against your home, meaning it is a loan that you take out using your home as collateral without paying off your first mortgage. A refinance typically means that you’ll be paying off your existing first mortgage and replacing it with a new first mortgage.
Determining whether it’s best to refinance or to obtain a home equity loan is very complicated and depends on many factors. You should consider contacting your tax advisor to determine what makes the most sense for you.
You may also contact one of our mortgage consultants to assist you.
Comparing monthly payments of your existing first mortgage and a new home equity loan as opposed to a new first mortgage should help. You should also keep in mind the term of each of your loans, especially if monthly payment is not a significant issue for you.